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Monday, August 10, 2020

tRUMP's disgusting twofer

   tRUMP's proposal to bankrupt the Postal Service has received tons of publicity in the last few weeks.  Now he is threatening to suspend payroll taxes.  There is no bottom to his evil.  What is most perplexing is that he is attacking two programs that have overwhelming public support across all political lines.  I have read that the Postal Service has a 90% favorability rating.  Post offices in small rural communities are popular meeting spots.  One would think  that Republican senators from sparsely populated states will fight to properly fund the postal service.  On the other hand, in the age of tRUMP, it is impossible to apply rational thinking to irrational minds.  

        The payroll tax is 7.65% which is charged separately  to both employees and employers.  Trump claims that he has the authority to suspend the tax without congressional involvement.  It goes without saying that he probably has no such authority.  If he were able to suspend the tax, it would mean that  wealthy wage earners  would save about $10,500.  An employee earning $20,000 would save about $765.  And, of course, unemployed people would save nothing.

     A cut in payroll taxes found its way into the proposed Republican covid relief bill.   McConnell claimed he did not know how it got into the bill.  In any event it was swiftly deleted.  McConnell well knows that the politics of defunding social security and medicare is toxic.

       Trump has not said whether he would suspend the employer tax as well as the employee tax.  We can assume that is his intent.  Think of all the money the tRUMP/Kushner criminal enterprises would save.  By my math using reasonable assumptions of payroll, it may be in the millions. Employers would love to see the tax cut.   This is a classic example of trickle down economics which has proven time and time again that the money barely trickles down.

       The payroll tax funds social security and medicare, both tremendously popular programs.  You may recall that in 2005, George W. Bush made a modest proposal to partially privatize social security.  The public reaction from all sides was overwhelmingly negative.  Bush quickly withdrew the proposal.  For years wealthy conservative Republicans have thirsted for reductions in social security benefits.  tRUMP's proposal will help starve social security and medicare.  Will tRUMP's base know or care that he wants to starve social security and medicare?  The answer to both is probably, "no". AARP will certainly care.

       As an aside,  there is an easy fix to fully fund social security and medicare for decades to come.  Right now there is a cap on the amount of income which is subject to the payroll tax.  So a millionaire pays a far smaller percentage of his or her income than does an ordinary wage earner.  If the cap were eliminated everyone would pay the same percentage.  Seems fair to me.  Eliminating the cap will never happen while Republicans control the Senate.  This is another good reason to boot them out.

       tRUMP and his enablers are actively undermining the quality of the postal service.  All of the members of the postal service board of directors are white male tRUMP appointees.  People on our side of politics are legitimately worried that tRUMP will successfully disqualify millions of mail in ballots by emasculating the postal service.  I worry as well.  But the eternal optimist thinks that most secretaries of state  will do their best to protect the franchise.  Jocelyn Benson will absolutely protect mail in ballots.  A simple protection is to make sure that every voter has access to a drop box for their ballot.  We saw in Wisconsin that neither Republicans nor covid will deter the Democratic wave from  coming. Do your part to fumigate tRUMP out of the White House.


Tuesday, July 21, 2020

tRUMP's campaign tactics: fraud and fear

 I am the fortunate or unfortunate recipient of countless emails from the tRUMP campaign.   I also receive countless solicitations from Biden.  The difference between the two is day and night.    The Biden solicitations are straightforward asks for money.   They contain messages about the importance of money and the importance of defeating tRUMP.  The tRUMP solicitations are straightforward frauds.

      One solicitation said that I had been chosen among all of tRUMP supporters to be in the 100 club.  This club is limited to 100 tRUMP supporters from around the country.  If I did not act immediately, I would lose my chance to be in the club.  It goes without saying that this is laughable.  But, it is much more sinister than laughable..  The tRUMP campaign would not put this out if it were not effective.  This means that thousands if not tens of thousands of supporters contribute because they think they are in a club limited to 100 people.

      Eric tRUMP sent me an e mail that said that if I immediately make a contribution, there would be a 400% match.  I assume this is lie.  But I also assume it is an effective lie.

        Lara tRUMP sent me an e mail saying that I could be in the VIP club.  There would be only 100 members of the VIP club.  If I did not act before midnight, my place would be taken by someone else.  Another damnable lie.  But people believe it.

         The Federal Elections Commission is a toothless entity. The FEC has an equal number of Republicans and Democrats.  The commission should vigilantly scrutinize fraudulent election tactics. It is a guarantee, however, that a complaint against the tRUMP campaign would tossed into  the trash bin.
        Now to the fearmongering.  For this solicitation tRUMP actually used the USPS.  It is a four page diatribe of the most disgusting fearmongering imaginable.  To quote, " If Joe Biden wins the White House in November it's game over for American Capitalism".  He calls the green new deal  a Socialist pipedream.  He says that Democrats want to turn our country into a big government socialist nightmare like Venezuela. He  said that the green new deal would kill the energy sector and the airline industry and cost tens of millions of American Jobs.   He claims that Democrats forced his hand to call a national emergency at the border because of their utter contempt for the security  of everyday citizens. He said that his big, beautiful wall  is giving greater security from the pandemic  and prevents the flow of hardened criminals who threaten our children and our way of life. He said that the Democrats are using the coronavirus to push for mail in voting so it could open the door for widespread fraud and abuse.  I could go on.  The bottom line is that a contribution of $45 or more would get you  a limited edition MAGA hat. and would help insure victory.

          I can't watch Hannity and I can't listen to Limbaugh.  But I do read tRUMP'S solicitation  to get a sense of the tRUMP netherworld.  tRUMP has done incalculable damage to our country.  Much of it can be fixed with a Democratic president and Congress.  But the hate and venom spewed by tRUMP and his supporters may last for decades.  

             In my view, tRUMP and his enablers are floundering.  The signs are good for a Democratic sweep and an end to the nightmare.  But it is an eternity to the election.  So stay optimistic and help get out the vote.  If we do that we win.


Monday, July 6, 2020

Comrade Benedict tRUMP

  I wrote this piece on Wed, but had computer problems.  So I am sending it today.  In the meanwhile an organization named VoteVets has put out a commercial titled Benedict Donald.    Damn, I beat them to the punch but couldn't get my piece published in time.  In any event,  Benedict tRUMP has desecrated  our national holiday honoring the ideals of our country.  So for the moment let's enjoy the day and try to forget  Benedict.

      What does Russia have on tRUMP? About a year ago I suggested a number of reasons why  treason could have been in the articles of impeachment.  At that time there were ample reasons for suggesting that tRUMP was treasonous.  He has now added to the list.  His response to Russia having a bounty on the heads of Americans  has been immoral  at best and treasonous at worst.  There can be only one explanation for tRUMP promoting Russian interests over American. They have something on him.

          He has denied that he consorted with prostitutes in a Moscow hotel.  Maybe the rumor is not true.  But we all know that tRUMP has zero credibility.  Would anyone be surprised if the videotapes are disclosed?  

          We know that more than $100 million of Russian oligarch money has been invested in tRUMP properties That is separate from the stinky Florida land deal.  He bought an estate in 2004 for $41 million and sold it to an oligarch in 2008 for $95 million. 

         The most glaring example of tRUMP's treason was when he accepted the word of Putin in Helsinki over the unanimous opinion of all American intelligence agencies.  He was silent when Russia invaded Crimea and Eastern Ukraine.  Most recently he ordered the removal of American forces from Germany contrary to the wishes of our NATO allies  and American military leaders.  Nothing could make Putin happier.

     And now we find out that tRUMP knew that Russia was paying a bounty for dead Americans and coalition forces.  tRUMP's response to this scandal could have been written by Putin.  First he denied that he was warned.  This was a typical tRUMP lie.  Second, he denounced leakers.  This is typical when leakers reveal the truth.  Third now that it is out in the open he has not said a word of denunciation of Russia.  And fourth, he has spoken to Putin at least 6 times since the briefing on February 27 nad has not even brought up the subject let alone tell him that we know what he's doing.  If this is not treason I don't know what is. 

             In my email last year I suggested that we call him Traitor tRUMP.  Moscow Mitch has stuck to McConnell.  Why not Traitor tRump?  I suggested that the word "quisling" originated from Prime Minister Quisling who was a traitor to Norway during World War Two.  

      The most famous traitor in American history was Benedict Arnold.   For 3 1/2 years tRUMP has shown incredible loyalty to Russia.  While I like Traitor tRump, Benedict tRUMP fits nicely.

            The Lincoln Project has produced an incredible ad. I may not have it exactly right but it is something like this. It shows a man facing the camera and saying that he is a Republican  pro life, pro second amendment guy. But tRUMP is a dishonest coward and for the first time in his life he will vote for a Democratic candidate for president.  I previously described Joe The Barber.  If these two men are being duplicated throughout the country, We win in a landslide.

               Thanks for listening.  Have a safe and peaceful holiday.


Trump Doesn't Believe in Democracy, Here's His 25-Step Reelection Plan

Trump will do anything to be re-elected. His opponents are limited because they believe in democracy. Trump has no limits because he doesn’t.

Here’s Trump’s re-election playbook, in 25 simple steps:

1. Declare yourself above the law.
2. Use racist fearmongering. Demand “law and order” and describe protesters as “thugs”, “lowlife” and “rioters and looters”. Describe Covid-19 as “Kung-Flu”. Retweet posts from white supremacists. In your campaign ads, use a symbol associated with Nazis.
3. Appoint an attorney general more loyal to you than to America, and politicize the Department of Justice so it’s lenient on your loyalists and comes down hard on your enemies. Have it lighten the sentence of a crony convicted of lying under oath. Order investigations of industries you dislike.
4. Fire US attorneys who are investigating you.
5. Fire independent inspectors general who are looking into what you’ve done. Crush any whistleblowers you find.
6. Demean and ignore the intelligence community. Appoint a director of national intelligence more loyal to you than to America. Demand that the head of the FBI pledge loyalty to you.
7. Pack the federal courts with judges and justices more loyal to you than to the constitution.
8. Politicize the Department of Defense so generals will back whatever you order. Refer to them as “my generals”. Have them help clear out protesters. Order the military to surveil protesters. Tell governors you’ll bring in the military to stop protesters.
9. Purge your party of anyone disloyal to you and turn it into a mindless, brainless, spineless cult.
10. Get rid of accumulated experience and expertise in government. Demean career public servants. Hollow out the state department, the Department of Justice, Health and Human Services, and public health.
11. Reward donors and cronies with bailouts, tax breaks, subsidies, government contracts, regulatory rollbacks and plum jobs. Put their lobbyists in charge of your agencies. Distribute $500bn in pandemic assistance to corporations in secret, without any oversight.
12. Coddle dictators. Don’t criticize their human rights abuses. Refuse to work with the leaders of other democracies. Withdraw from international treaties.
13. Create scapegoats. Demonize migrants and lock up asylum-seekers at the border even if they’re children. Put a white nationalist in charge of immigration policy. Blame Muslims, Mexicans and Chinese.
14. Denigrate and ridicule all critics. Describe opponents as “human scum”. Attack the mainstream media as purveyors of “fake news” and “enemies of the people”.
15. Conjure up conspiracies against yourself supposedly led by your predecessor and your opponent in the last election. Without any evidence, accuse your predecessor of “treason”. Fabricate a “Deep State” out to get you.
16. Downplay real threats to the nation, such as a rapidly spreading pandemic. Lie about your utter failure to contain it. Muzzle public health experts. Urge people to go back to work even as the pandemic worsens in parts of the country.
17. Encourage armed supporters to “liberate” states from elected officials who disagree with you.
18. Bribe other nations to investigate your electoral opponent and flood social media with lies about him.
19. Use rightwing propaganda machines like Fox News and conspiracy theory peddling One America News to inundate the country with your lies. Ensure that the morally bankrupt chief executive of Facebook allows you to spread your lies on the biggest media machine in the world.
20. Suppress the votes of people likely to vote against you. Intimidate voters of color. Encourage Republican governors to purge voter rolls, demand voter ID and close polling places.
21. Seek to prevent mail-in ballots during the pandemic. Claim they will cause voter fraud, without evidence. Threaten to close the US postal service.
22. Get Vladimir Putin to hack into US election machines, as he did in 2016 but can now do with more experience and deftness. Promise him that in return you’ll further destabilize America as well as Nato. Allow him to put a bounty on killing U.S. troops in Afghanistan.
23. If it still looks like you’ll be voted out, try to postpone the election.
24. If you’re voted out of office notwithstanding all this, refuse to leave. Contest the election, claim massive fraud, say it’s a conspiracy, get your cult of a political party to support your lies, get your propaganda machine to repeat them, get your justice department to back you, get your judges and justices to affirm you, get your generals to suppress any subsequent rebellion.
25. Declare victory.
Memo to America: Beware Trump’s playbook. Spread the truth. Stay vigilant. Fight for our democracy.

Robert Reich

Tuesday, May 19, 2020


Please indulge me.  As I have said more than once, I think it is important to chronicle the criminality, corruption and derangement of tRUMP and his gang.  As is often the case, tRUMP has produced multiple big stories in one day.

       In yesterday's press conference tRUMP exposed   his total corruption for the world to see.  He said he thinks there should be NO, repeat NO, inspectors general. The function of IGs  is to keep the government honest.  In other words,  tRUMP admits he wants a corrupt government.

         tRUMP has not yet fired every inspector general.  He said he has fired and will continue to fire any inspector general who was appointed by Obama.  tRUMP's venality leaves me breathless.  As far as I know Charles Grassley is the only Republican senator question  the firings.  I think every one of the 53 Republican senators should be outraged.   Inspector generals keep watch over the executive branch.  The legislative branch should embrace the system of inspectors general. Republican senators  have completely abdicated their roles as a check on the executive.  What is wrong with them?  A bigger question is whether any of this matters to any tRUMP supporter?  The answer is obvious.

     The latest firing was the inspector general of the State Department.  News reports are that the IG was investigating a number of possible claims about Mike Pompeo.  Some are relatively small like having government employees walk his dog, pick up Chinese food, pick up his dry cleaning and perform other personal services on the taxpayers' dime.  Another is huge, having to do with tRUMP's declaration of an emergency to send billions of dollars worth of arms to Saudi Arabia.   In answer to the firing, Pompeo has stated that he had no idea what the IG was investigating.  Therefore he could not possibly be charged with retaliation against the IG.  Please take five minutes to stop laughing before you go to the rest of my blog.

     Now to the story of tRUMP's ongoing lunacy.  He declared that he has been taking hydroxychlorquine (HCQ) for about a week and  a half.  He said that he has talked to "a lot of people" who say it is a good idea.  He disagrees with the FDA and the vast majority of physicians  and scientist who say it is dangerous to take HQC unless there is a specific indication.  
        I followed several newscasts that reported the story.  In my view every newscast missed the most important point of this crazy story.   When tRUMP and a few doctors started advocating HQC, they did so as a  treatment for people who were seriously ill with covid 19.  It has never been promoted, or even suggested, that it can prevent covid 19.  If it prevented covid there would be no  need for  a vaccine.  HCQ would be the vaccine.  Why is tRUMP taking this drug?  Has he tested positive for the virus?  Or is he just crazy?  I go with the crazy answer.

        So another day another corruption scandal and another glimpse into a very sick mind.  Take care all.  Stay safe.  


Monday, May 18, 2020

tRUMP's mental illness

If you don't want to read another one of my tRUMP rants, please skip down to the last paragraph.  You will love it.   During tRUMP's campaign I wrote about the several well recognized mental disorders from which  tRUMP suffers.  Mental disorders do not get better on their own.  Treatment may help.  But absent treatment, the disorders get worse.  There is no doubt that tRUMP's mental disorders are progressing.

        This week tRUMP ranted that Obama and Biden have committed the worst crimes in U.S. political history.  They should be thrown in prison for fifty years.  No response is necessary to this lunacy.  Among other conditions, tRUMP suffers from a personality disorder known as neurotic projection.  Obama's presidency was recognized as  among the least corrupt presidencies in history.  tRUMP's presidency is probably the most corrupt.  So, because of his mental illness tRUMP projects his own corruption on Obama.

        I am not a student of history.  As far as I know, no president has ever attacked a predecessor so viciously.  But this is more than an attack.  I believe it is the clearest sign yet that we have a progressively more  deranged president.  If further proof is needed, On May 4 tRUMP accused Joe Scarborough of killing a young female  assistant  in 2001.  tRUMP called Scarborough "Psycho Joe."  The accusation is pure nonsense, but it comes from the president of the United States.

           This week I will be writing or calling several Republican senators asking them when they will publicly denounce this craziness.  Is there no John McCain among the fifty three spineless creatures  in the Senate?  

          On May 3,   CNN's Don Lemon made the most prescient statement about tRUMP's Obama obsession.  This is what he said:

                            What is it about President Obama that really gets under
                            your skin.  Is it because he's smarter than you?  Better
                            educated?  Made it on his own? Didn't need daddy's 
                            help? Wife is more accomplished?  Better looking? What
                            is it about him?  That he's a black man that accomplished 
                            being president?  That he punked you on the whole birth 
                            certificate thing?  What is it?  Just wondering.

       Lemon nailed tRUMP up to a point.  He implied  a mild mental derangement.  I don't think it's mild.
          One more thing.  Tonight at 8:00 there will be a nationwide virtual high school graduation.  It will be carried on all major networks including Fox.  President Obama will be giving the commencement address.  Don't miss it.  I wish there were a video cam in the White House.  Smoke will be coming out of tRUMP's ears.  Take care.  Stay safe.


Thursday, May 14, 2020

Supreme Court reporter

My favorite thing to do when I visit Washington is to watch oral arguments in the Supreme Court.  Today I listened to arguments  about tRUMP's tax returns as they were broadcast by C Span.  There were two cases.  The first was The House Of Representatives subpoena of tRUMP's returns.  The second was the New York district attorney (Cyrus Vance) subpoena of tRUMP's returns.  Here are my thoughts.

      The new format of arguing remotely is not the same format as when all of the justices sit together at the court.  The usual format is that an attorney starts speaking and is then interrupted by a justice asking a question.  Then the attorney starts answering and another justice asks a question.  This goes on for the entire argument.  That format allows justices to ask multiple followup questions.  In remote  format, the justice gets a turn and then it's over. Each justice's turn and the answer lasts about three minutes. I don't care for this format.

       The first case involved the House Of Representatives suing tRUMP's accounting firm to get a whole bunch of records including tRUMP's tax returns in the years before he became "president".  The first attorney for tRump made the bold statement that never before have the personal records of a president been subpoened.  There must be a compelling need, which does not exist in this case.   Later he referred to  "demonstrated need." He argued that Congress had come up with a completely phony pretext to subpoena the records.  
          The House lawyer was the worst of the  lawyers who argued.  He fumbled.  He was obsequious.  Ar one point he could not come up with an answer to a hypothetical.  But at least he did say why there was a compelling need.  There were three committees which requested the subpoenas.  The subpoenas were requested after explosive information came to light about tRUMP's finances.  The intelligence Committee wanted to investigate whether a foreign power would have undue influence over the president.  The oversight committee was investigating whether there had to be legislation improving the Ethics in Government Act".  I believe the third committee  was looking at possible changes in the tax law.  To me, each of those committees had a compelling interest.

         Justice Ginsberg's first question out of the box was the best.  She asked tRUMP's attorney how was this case differed from  subpoenaing  Bill Clinton's Whitewater records , the subpoena of Hillary Clinton's billings, the Nixon tapes,  Watergate records and the Paula Jones case.   tRUMP's attorneys did not make any decent  argument distinguishing those cases.

     Justice Thomas asked a couple  of surprisingly good question.  In the first case he asked whether Congress had implied powers to issue subpoenas.  The answer was "Yes."  Some have argued that subpoena power is not enumerated in the constitution.

        Breyer asked a simple question, "were the subpoenas in Watergate legal, yes or no?"   The response was that the President is on duty 24/7 and therefore cannot be burdened with a subpoena.  In other words a non response.

On the other hand, Breyer made a statement that was chilling.  He said he worried that if there is no limit on Congressional subpoena power of the president, a future Joe McCarthy could subpoena a future Franklin Roosevelt.  I usually like Breyer.  Not this time.  In this case he was using a Reductio Ad Absurdum argument .  He was using the most absurd hypothetical possible to attack a reasonable proposition.  It seemed like Breyer was so fervent in his argument that he might vote with tRUMP.  I don't know how he can ignore the legitimate legislative concerns of Congress.

Alito asked an interesting question.  He asked if the president can be used as a case study for potential legislation.

          Sotomeyor had a great reference to an earlier Supreme Court case which said that a subpoena is valid if there is any conceivable reason to issue the subpoena. 

            Kagan made the point that there have been hardly any prior similar cases because Congress and the president have always come to an accommodation.  In this case, tRUMP refused any accommodation.

             Roberts asked if tRUMP's position is that the court must probe the mental processes of Congress to see if this is a pretext.

               tRUMP's attorney said that Congress needs to show the legislation it is proposing in order to justify the subpoena.  Ginsberg pointed out that legislation comes about only after investigation, not before.

                 At one point tRUMP's attorney said that there needs to be a higher standard to subpoena the President.  Ginsberg asked how did that work out in the Paula Jones case.  She was cut off before the attorney could answer.

                Kagan brought up that in the Paula Jones case, Clinton argued that a deposition placed an undue burden on him.  The Supreme Court rejected that argument.

                  Gorsuch asked an excellent question.  Would it be a legitimate subpoena if Congress was investigating whether it should pass a law requiring presidents to disclose their tax returns.  tRUMP's lawyer answered "Yes."  As far as I'm concerned that question and answer should end the discussion.  Gorsuch followed up by saying the Whitewater subpoena was very much like this subpoena.  

             At some point tRUMP's lawyer said that the House had never articulated a legislative purpose for the subpoena.  The House attorney  said that the legislative purpose  was laid out in pages 17-36 of its brief.

              In the House case there is an issue of separation of powers.  That issue is not involved in the NY case.  I believe there are two big issues in the House case.  First,  did the house have a legitimate purpose for issuing the subpoena?  Second, does the Subpoena place an undue burden on the president?    I believe both issues should be decided in favor of the House.  Regarding the first issue,  the House set forth multiple reasons it had for wanting the tax returns.  Regarding the second issue, none of tRUMP's attorneys detailed how subpoenaing  the records would place and undue burden on the president.  If I had been representing the House, I would have argued that there is not only no undue burden, in fact, there is no burden whatsoever.  The accounting firm would turn over the records.  tRUIMP could go on being president and playing golf. It was impossible, however to read where the Court was going.    I worry that the justices will rule that the Congressional subpoenas violate the separation of powers doctrine.  I don't buy it because  Congress had legitimate legislative reasons to get the records.  But then again, I am not a Supreme Court justice. 

          It turns out that the NY case is more compelling than the House case.   Even Jay Sekulow admitted that there is nothing improper for the district attorney to do a criminal investigation of the President.  Sekulow drew the line, however, at issuing a subpoena.  He argued that a sitting president has absolute temporary immunity.  He had to concede to Justice Thomas  that such immunity is not written anywhere.  I was waiting for a justice to ask about immunity in the setting of the President shooting someone on Fifth Avenue, but no one asked the question.  

        In the NY case tRUMP was represented by Sekulow and the solicitor general of the United States.  They both brought up the ridiculous argument that there are 2300 county district attorneys in the United States.  If Cyrus Vance is allowed to Subpoena the president's records, that would open a Pandora's box allowing 2300 prosecutors to file law suits.  The NY attorney shot that argument down.  tRUMP lived in NY and his business enterprise was located in NY.  There is no jurisdiction in the 2300 other counties.

      I know this is an extraordinarily long e mail.  Trust me, I have enough notes to make it twice as long.  Let me just summarize.  tRUMP's side says that answering the subpoena would place an undue burden on him.  Remember the subpoenas were not issued to him but to his accountants. Throughout the argument I never heard a description by tRUMP's attorneys of the undue burden.  On the other side, I did not hear a good argument refuting the undue burden argument.  Second,  everyone seems to agree that subpoenaing the president requires a higher standard than subpoenaing an ordinary person.  Congress and NY both argue that the higher standard was well met.  Third, there is the issue as to whether Congress issued the subpoena for the purely political reason of harassing the president.  This was Sekulow's argument.  No matter how the Supreme Court rules, I can't imagine it will buy Sekulow's argument.

         As I said at the outset, it is impossible to read how  the the Court is going based upon today's oral arguments.  I thought Thomas and Gorsuch asked good questions which would seem to favor the legitimacy of the subpoenas.  But Breyer gives me pause.  It would be fantastic if this court followed the Supreme Court precedent in Watergate and unanimously rule against the president.  But this is a completely different time and court.  I would be happy with a five-four ruling against tRUMP.  My prediction is that the Supreme Court will send the NY case back to the lower court to investigate whether there was  a legitimate reason to investigate a possible crime.  This would conveniently prevent the turn over of records until after the election.  I worry that the court will rule against The House based upon the separation of powers doctrine.  I would hope that at a minimum the Supreme Court will send the House case back for a determination as to whether there was a legitimate legislative purpose.  We should know the decision by the end of June.